The Monuments Men and Women, were a group of 348 men and women from 14 nations, most of whom volunteered for service in the newly created Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (MFAA) Section of Civil Affairs of the Western Allied Armies during World War II. Many had expertise as museum directors, curators, art historians, artists, architects, librarians and educators. Only their job description was simple: to protect cultural treasures so far as war allowed.
The Foundation has created individual biographies of each Monuments Man and Woman, detailing their lives, military service, and career achievements.
"The credit belongs to the officers and men of the combat echelons whose veneration for priceless treasures persisted, even in the heat and fears of battle.”
General Dwight D. Eisenhower Acceptance remarks Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1946
A Shared Mission
To save cultural treasures from the destructiveness of war and theft by Adolf Hitler and the Nazis
On June 23, 1943, President Roosevelt approved the formation of the "American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas" widely known as the "Roberts Commission," after its chairman, Supreme Court Justice Owen J. Roberts. The work of the "Harvard Group" and the "American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS)." contributed to its establishment.
Thus was born the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (“MFAA") section under the auspices of the Civil Affairs and Military Government Sections of the Western Allied Armies. Together, the Monuments Men worked to protect monuments and other cultural treasures from the destruction of World War II. About two dozen Monuments Men braved the front lines to track, locate, and recover looted objects. Their work was dangerous: two Monuments Men were killed in combat. In the last year of the war, they tracked, located, and in the years that followed, returned more than five million artistic and cultural items to the countries from which they had been taken. Their role in preserving cultural treasures was without precedent.
Several hundred Monuments Men and Women remained in Germany, Austria, Italy, and Japan for up to six years after the conclusion of hostilities to coordinate the return of stolen works of art and other cultural objects. During that time they played instrumental roles in rebuilding cultural life in the devastated countries of Europe by organizing temporary art exhibitions and musical concerts.
Upon returning home, many of the Monuments Men and Women resumed their leadership positions at some of the most prominent cultural and educational institutions in the United States, England, and other Western Allied nations. They would, in time, advance even further, becoming directors and curators of world renowned museums including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, MoMA, National Gallery of Art, Cleveland Museum of Art, Toledo Museum of Art, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Courtauld Institute of Art, and the Tate Gallery. One Monuments Man co-founded the New York City Ballet. Others contributed to the creation of the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the National Endowment for the Arts. Even the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict is predicated on the achievements of the Monuments Men and Women during and after the war.
Richard Barancik is the only Monuments Man still living.
Monuments Men and Women
The men and women who served during World War II in the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives section under the auspices of the Civil Affairs and Military Government Sections of the Western Allied Armies.
21st-Century Monuments Men and Women
Courageous individuals who now or in recent past have distinguished themselves for their efforts to preserve and protect cultural heritage. This list also includes Monuments Men and Women who are serving today.
The men and women - soldiers and civilians alike - who were instrumental in any number of ways for the success of the operations carried out by the Monuments Men and Women during World War II.
Harvard faculty and local citizens come together to provide expertise on cultural matters prior to and during World War II, compiling information about cultural areas, monuments, and objects in Europe.
American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS)
Expert scholars, art historians, collectors, and artists aided the ACLS in compiling lists and preparing maps of the most important monuments and works of art to be protected during World War II.
How You Can Help
Our research on each of the Monuments Men and Women is ongoing. We appeal to the public for help in completing their biographies. If you have information or photographs, or believe someone should be added to these lists, please contact us.